Microwave Solutions to Plant Engineering Problems — The use of cable to carry voice and data presents two problems:
* Runs more than about 1000 ft require the use of line amplifiers with equalizers to maintain signal quality.
* Cable connections may not always be feasible because of cost, or right-of-way considerations. In video transmission, for example, with distances greater than 1800 ft, 23 GHz microwave is cost-effective because cable costs continue to rise whereas microwave costs remain constant. Some cost versus distance rates are shown in the graph.
For data systems, the initial investment for microwave is higher than for leased telephone lines, but payback is usually in 6 to 24 mo. In addition, the cost of expanding a microwave system is low compared with expanding leased facilites, because more data or voice channels can be easily added to the existing multiplexer.
Present-day data transmission requirements demand telephone circuits of a quality and bandwidth that are expensive and difficult to obtain with standard telephone lines. Expanding leased lines involves an increase in monthly rates and may mean waiting up to 18 mo, whereas a microwave system involves a one-time investment with low maintenance costs. But the most advantageous aspect of microwave is its freedom from wire or fiber-optics cable, and the inherent problems of cable maintenance and right-of-way acquisition. And a company that relocates can move its microwave communication system by simply modifying the FCC license.
Obtaining an FCC License — In the case of 23 GH z systems, granting of the required FCC license is usually routine. The low transmitter power of 23 GHz equipment reduces interference between systems in crowded industrial environments. And, at this time, 23 GHz channels are less crowded than those of conventional lower-frequency microwave. The licensing process begins with a frequency search company surveying the geographical area within 50 miles and recommending frequencies that will not interfere with other area services. The kind of services that you would not want to interfere with include cell phone apps such as the spybubble pro version. This recommendation must accompany the license application sent to the FCC. The frequency of the microwave transmitter is based on the intended use of the equipment (for example, private or common carrier) and the system configuration, such as simplex or duplex. Frequency search companies charge about $200 for a frequency recommendation for one transmitter in one location and will complete and file the FCC license form for about $200 more. AFter the application is filed with the FCC, the licensing process takes about 10 to 12 wk.
General Installation Considerations — Because the 23 GHz antenna is small, installation of the antenna units is relatively easy. All 23 GHz microwave links mount to a pipe, which must be rigid. The antenna alignment is critical to good system performance and must be maintained for proper operation.
Most 23 GHz simplex systems consists of two units at each end of the transmission path: one or two outdoor radio frequency antennas, and an indoor electronics unit generally consisting of a power supply and information conditioning circuits (see photographs). The antenna and electronics units at each stie are connected by power and signal cables that can extend up to a maximum of 1500 ft for some models.
All duplex data systems consist of separate indoor and outdoor units. There are two separate approaches to antenna configuration in the outdoor unit. One approach requires a separate transmitter and receiver antenna at each end of the path. The other uses the same antenna for both transmission and reception. The transmitter and receiver indoor units may or may not be combined into one enclosure. Because all RF circuitry is containted in the head, the usual waveguides required for conventional microwave systems are unnecessary. In 23 GHz microwave, only the signal coaxial cable and the power cable are required. The specifications of the particular link should be consulted to determine the maximum distance between the antenna unit and the indoor unit. If the requirements exceed that maximum, perhaps the distance between the data terminal equipment and the indoor unit can be increased.
Wiring — The 23 GHz systems have two cable requirements: signal and power. The cable required for video in all cases is 75 ohm coaxial cable (RG-59/U). For cable runs over 500 ft, RG-11 is recommended. Bot audio and data cable requirements vary with the system.
Power cable requiremts also vary with the manufacturer. The Racon unit, for example, is powered by a separate Class 2, 24 v ac supply. Bot the GE and the M/A-Com units require 115 v and have an indoor power supply that is connected to the antenna unit by a separate power cable.
Antenna Alignment — To obtain the highest signal level at the receiver antenna, the transmitter and receiver must be aligned when the microwave system is installed. Preliminary alignment is accomplished by pointing the receiver and transmitter at each other by sight. The final alignment is accomplished by peaking the AGC voltage at the receiver end of the system. Maximum signal strength occurs when the AGC voltage is at its maximum value. Alignment may be eased by providing two-way radio communication between the sites to the installers can “talke in” the alignment. For fast, accurate alignment, the AGC voltage should be monitored, and one link at a time moved in only one direction at a time, peaking the AGC voltage by moving both the transmitter and receiver antennas.
You would often see people handling out a piece of paper in the street. Out of your curiosity you would probably like to see what these people are handling out. So, you would get near them and ask for a piece of the paper that they are giving out. Then perhaps you would found out from the piece of paper that your favorite salon will be having a big discount on all their services this weekend. Good thing you ask for a piece of the paper and you learned about the discount. You surely cannot let this opportunity pass.These pieces of paper that businesses often give out are called flyers. Flyers are valuable and cost effective form of promotional material. For small businesses who are just starting up or do not have enough money to produce more expensive advertising materials, flyers are a good alternative. If you have extra money to spare you can ask a professional to make the flyer for you but of course you can always do the flyer yourself.If you are designing the flyer yourself make sure that you do not just use ordinary white paper. Make your flyer attractive by using colorful, cheerful and attractive papers, one that would really interest a passer by to have a look at your flyer. Your flyer will serve as your business card so as much as possible include only the necessary information such as the product or service that you offer, your address and contact number among others. If you are offering a sale or discount on your products or services, put inclusive dates to get people to act as soon as possible.Additionally, put comments of satisfied customers in your flyers and ensure that you put yourself aside from other companies by listing your qualifications. The back part of the flyer can be used for listing additional comments, qualifications and offers. When you have effectively designed your flyer you are now ready to distribute it. As much as possible hand it out in areas where your target customers are found. You can also post it in bulletin boards, grocery stores, offices or any other place that allow postings.Public gatherings such as parades are great places to hand out flyers. You have to remember though that if someone gives back your flyer accept it back and just smile. Do not thrust your flyer on anyone. And before you post or leave your flyer in any place make sure that it is allowed in that area. When you have taken these few tips into consideration, chances are you will have a wonderful time giving out your flyers and increasing your sales over a period of time.